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УДК: 636.5.033.085.13 

The basis of the ratios of threonine and tryptophan in the diets of chickens parent stock

 

M. Кryvenok, doctor of agricultural Sciences

 I. Ilchuk,  candidate of agricultural Sciences

National University of  Life and  Environmental Sciences of  Ukraine

 

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УДК 636.5.033.085.13

 

M. Кryvenok, doctor of agricultural Sciences

 I. Ilchuk,  candidate of agricultural Sciences

National University of  Life and  Environmental Sciences of  Ukraine

 

The basis of the ratios of threonine and tryptophan in the diets of chickens parent stock

 

 

Improving measurement systems of nutrition of farm animals and to assess the nutritional value of forages remains today one of the most pressing issues in the production of poultry products.

The main task of specialists on feeding birds is that in specific production conditions effective spending of feed to achieve the needs of the animal to the level of greatest potential ability to produce products.

The results of studies conducted on the bird, show that the most important factor in increasing the egg production of chickens is a rational and balanced feeding. The birds body requires optimal receipt of all necessary nutrients, minerals and biologically active substances in a readily retrievable form.

The level of egg production, food and biological value of poultry products most significantly impact the usefulness and balance of protein diet.

In the body poultry protein synthesis takes place under the action of enzymes and directed by the genetic code, which is incorporated in the nucleic acid. Different combinations of amino acids determine a variety of properties and qualities of protein. Therefore, the intensity of synthesis of proteins of organs and tissues of birds is in direct proportion to the full proceeds of protein with food. When fed to the birds of defective proteins, the metabolism, slowed growth, reduced productivity, deterioration of the tail.

Almost half of certain amino acids in the body of the bird may siteswatch in their body due to the restructuring of carbohydrates, fats, organic acids, amino acids, ammonium salts, etc. Such amino acids are called nonessential.

The biological role of some amino acids is determined by the fact that they are included in a particular number of most important proteins in the body, but the body can not synthesize other amino acids cannot be replaced and are therefore called essential. Essential amino acids include lysine, methionine, tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, phenylalanine, histidine, valine, arginine, which are essential for birds of all age groups, with the exception of arginine and histidine, which are not strictly indispensable, and glycine, is indispensable only for young animals.

For birds identified three so-called critical amino acids – lysine, methionine and tryptophan, which deficiency is most common in the diets. Therefore, professionals on feeding birds, it is important to control the content of these amino acids in complete compound feed.

Tryptophan acts as third or fourth limiting amino acid in poultry diets. An important feature of it is that in its structure is the core of indole and this makes it impossible for the synthesis of tryptophan in the body.

Almost half of certain amino acids in the body of the bird may siteswatch in their body due to the restructuring of carbohydrates, fats, organic acids, amino acids, ammonium salts, etc. Such amino acids are called nonessential.

The role of this amino acid on hemoglobin synthesis in poultry and the effect of tryptophan on reproductive function (especially in males).

Tryptophan is the precursor of several other active compounds – serotonin, tryptamine, adrenochrome. Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter and is essential for the synthesis of pineal hormone – melatonin. Deficiency of tryptophan may negatively affect the level of hemoglobin and proteins of blood plasma transport of lipids from the liver to the blood: inhibits growth, leads to atrophy of endocrine glands.

It should be noted that currently there are experimental data on the effect on the metabolism of tryptophan in the body of the bird the other essential amino acids treeno.

Threonine refers to gopalakrishna amino acids. It can be a source of carbon skeletons to build glucose molecules, the use of which in the synthesis of glucose is implemented after their entry into the tricarboxylic acid cycle. As a result, formed pyruvic acid, which is the starting material for the biosynthesis of glucose and glycogen. Threonine is essential for the synthesis of skeletal muscle proteins, collagen and elastin, involved in the biosynthesis of isoleucine, promotes energy metabolism in muscle cells/

Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish optimal levels and ratios of tryptophan and threanine in poultry diets, depending on its age and productivity.

Assessment of the impact on the bird different levels of amino acids in feed can be done based on data on changes in the organism under the influence of this factor.

The main indicator of the quality of feeding, and the most important indicator of the effectiveness of diets is the productivity of birds. Gross harvest of eggs and egg production on average and hen housed are the main indicators characterizing the efficiency of the bird, however, indicators such as the intensity of egg production is very significant in terms of assessing the quality of use of the bird, and hence the efficiency of its diet. The conducted investigations allowed us to identify certain changes in the productivity of the experimental birds.

The results show that the productivity of chickens largely influenced by the level and ratio threanin and tryptophan in feed.

So, the highest egg production in hens were in the third group, which amounted during the period 302,1 eggs, which is 4.9% more compared with the control. Gross harvest of eggs exceeded the control group on 1428 eggs. Also significantly higher (by 4 %) was the intensity of egg production birds.

It should also be noted a certain trend in the cost of feed. With decreasing aspect ratio threanin to tryptophan in the diets of birds from 2.75 to 2.50 during the entire period of its use the total cost of feed and production costs 10 eggs decreased, and the decrease of this ratio from 2.50 to 2,40 – these indicators began to rise.

Effective against threanin to tryptophan in poultry diets has varied according to the periods of its use: starting from the first period (indicator equal 2,63), attitude threanin to tryptophan change in the direction of increasing: in the second period – 2.65; the third – 2.73; in the last period of the use of birds, this figure decreased to 2.56.

In 25-week old chickens in our studies, the efficiency in their body threanin amounted to 91.1 %, tryptophan – 87.7 percent for the attitude threanin to tryptophan 2,.65.

 The content threanin and tryptophan and their ratio in the diets of poultry egg cross alter the need chickens in these amino acids, depending on the age and performance, affect their egg production and efficiency of use of amino acids themselves.

 Developed regression equations allow to predict the content of amino acids in feed for chicken egg breeds for different industrial purpose depending on the period of its use, performance and amino acid composition of feed.

When balancing rations chickens egg production efficiency in amino acid composition, the content of tryptophan in to be installed to a level at which there is achieved an optimum ratio with threanin.

 

 

 

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Ця стаття була надрукована в № 3-4 за 3-4 2015