S. Pankova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
О. Кaterynych, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences,
О.Zaharchenko, T. Pechenishska, researchers
Н. Fesenko, junior researcher
State Research Poultry Station NAAS of Ukraine
New domestic meat and egg hybrid for home and organic production
(the economic efficiency of growing males)
Analysis of the current state of the poultry industry in Ukraine demonstrates the use of in poultry farms mainly specialized lines and crosses of egg and beef production. At the same time steadily increasing proportion of farmers and private households, where the production of commercial poultry production for their own use and sale to the population occurs in small amounts using a homemade feed. Therefore, there is a need for a universal (dual purpose) hybrid, which would have a good adaptation to local conditions and the high growth rate in breeding males.
According to the order of the Ministry of Agrarian Policy and Food of Ukraine and the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine from September 11, 2014 №344 / 197 in our country there are 4 reproducer for breeding hens with white plumage coloration, 9 - with brown (gold) and 5 - with multicolored. This underlines the great interest of the population to a variety of color bird feathers.
Bred in the Institute of poultry populations meat-and-egg chickens with different colored feathers are in high demand from the owners of gardens and farms in Ukraine and neighboring countries. The combined type of productivity of populations, high vitality and attractive appearance promote the use of them as a paternal form on receipt dual purpose hybrids. At the same time as the parent form can be used by native breed chickens Poltava clay, which is characterized by excellent locally adapted breeding, high viability, high resistance to neoplastic diseases.
The paper presents a new product of domestic breeding - 'farmer males' with the desired ratio on the plumage. This interbreeding hybrid produced by crossing meat-and-egg cocks with white plumage color and breed chickens Poltava clay. Study the effectiveness of the hybrid males feeding on meat in a comparative perspective with the original forms.
Hybrid and pure-diurnal males were planted to grow meat on 100 individuals in each group. Feeding chickens was carried out in plenty of fodder for a balanced rearing. Term fattening was 12 weeks. Chickens grown in compliance with the regulatory parameters of the content, the most common in the farms of the country. The parameters of the microclimate, the front feeding and watering, lighting mode, the stocking density of chickens of all groups were similar.
During the entire experiment in each group we take into account the daily feed costs. At the end of the experiment determined the feed conversion, the gross cost of feed per 1 kg of body weight, and cost-effectiveness of cultivation of hybrid males compared to the base case (the original form).
The evaluation exterior 12-week-old hybrid males have the vast majority of the birds turned golden (42 % of the total) and white (39 %) of plumage coloration. A fifth of the hybrids (19 %) had colored plumage: red-speckled, black-striped, solid blue and clay. In addition, there are two types of bird comb – rose-like as in the mother form and the sheet-like father, in a ratio of 74 % and 26 % of the individuals.
We set a high growth rate of the hybrid males. Throughout the growing period are significantly dominated by the mother form of body weight (by 53-69 %), giving shape to his father's 16-27 %. At the age of 12 weeks, body weight hybrids reached 2.5-3 kg. Hybrid young different high viability compared with both the original forms. Preservation of hybrid chickens was 100 %, while the Group initial forms it was somewhat lower - 98.3 % of paternal and 96.7 % - in the mother. According to this index marked effect zootechnical heterosis at 2.56 % and the true heterosis at 1.73 %.
The cost of feed per one head in the group of hybrids is 7.9 kg, per one kg of body weight gain - 3.16 kg. This is lower than the rates of paternal forms respectively 24 % and 1.6 %. Least of all the feed was spent on one's head in the form of the parent birds - 5.6 kg. At the same time, per one kg of weight gain in this group had maximum cost - 3.6 kg.
Based on this rate of feed and the cost of them, who make up at least 70% of the total cost of cultivation, the cost of one kg of meat in body weight was the lowest in the experimental group - 17.7 UAH against 18,1-20 UAH in the control groups. Profitability of meat production of hybrid chickens up 2 % compared with chickens paternal form, and 12.9 % - compared with the mother line, fattening cockerels which proved unprofitable. Economic efficiency of cultivation of hybrid males (per 100 head) compared with paternal form of 101.3 UAH as compared with the mother - 582.4 UAH.
Thus, meat and egg interbreeding hybrid produced by crossing White Plymouth Rock breed roosters and hens Poltava clay, the distribution of genotypes plumage has a significant range of their displays and meet the common needs of the population. 'Farmers' cockerels' characterized by a high viability (100 % safety against 96,7-98,3 % bird initial forms) and the live weight of fattening them for meat (2.53 kg at 12 weeks of age). Economic efficiency of cultivation of hybrid males (per 100 head) compared to the parental form of 101.3 UAH, and in comparison with the parent - 582.4 UAH.